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[
    {
        "id": 77,
        "title": "The Church of St Mary Matfelon",
        "author": {
            "id": 2,
            "username": "surveyoflondon"
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                "b_name": "Altab Ali Park, including the site of the parish church of St Mary Matfelon",
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        "body": "<p><em>Medieval churches</em></p>\n\n<p>The first church on the site that is now Altab Ali Park was built in the mid thirteenth century (by 1282), dedicated to Mary and from the outset identified as ‘de Matefelun’. This, which became Matfelon, may derive from a family name; Richard Matefelun, a wine merchant, is said to have been present in the area in 1230. If this is the derivation (matfelon as meaning knapweed is the least preposterous of numerous suggested alternatives), it was presumably in recognition of a pious benefaction, whether prompted by local need or not. It does seem clear that there would have been significant population growth in the area, and that the existing parish church of St Dunstan, Stepney, aside from being distant had been outgrown. Parish status was granted by 1320, the vicarage being in the gift of the Rector of Stepney. [^1] </p>\n\n<p>Archaeological evidence indicates that the church, always aligned to the adjacent road and not properly oriented, was of clunch or white chalk rubble. It thus, no doubt, came to be known as the ‘white chapel’, an appellation in use by 1344. Clunch was not uncommon in medieval churches, especially to the east and north of London, though it is friable so was often mixed with other materials. The building was reportedly wrecked in a storm and restored in 1362 thanks, it is said, to a papal Bull negotiated by the absentee rector, Sir David Gower, a Canon of St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, that promised sinners a remission of penance for visiting Whitechapel with an offering. There were four priests in 1416 indicating a large congregation or at least a prospering parish. Documentation of legacies and archaeological investigation both point to fifteenth-century improvements, to the fabric of doors and windows if not more. [^2] Exceptionally, there were no chantries at the Reformation, when, in 1548 there were 670 communicants. [^3]</p>\n\n<p>Little is known about the form of the medieval church. It appears to have had a four-bay nave to which a three-stage crenellated tower and a north aisle and porch might have been fifteenth-century additions. George Birch’s claim from inspection of wall footings in 1876 that the medieval church was co-extensive with that of the seventeenth century seems doubtful, if only because it is known that a south ‘aisle’ was added in 1591. This was, it seems, separately roofed, and almost as tall as the nave, though not as wide, and possibly not as long. More a room than an aisle it would have generated not just more seating for a growing congregation, but also a much more auditory and less processional interior. That would have been in keeping with the Calvinist norms of the late sixteenth century that were strongly represented in east London and firmly upheld by Richard Gardiner (or Gardner), Whitechapel’s rector from 1570 to 1617. [^4]</p>\n\n<p>Protestantism had sparked early in Whitechapel, through the celebrated challenge Richard Hunne, a merchant tailor and probably a Lollard, had presented to the claimed rights of the rector, Thomas Dryfield, in 1511, and through John Harrydance, the Whitechapel bricklayer, arrested in 1539 for preaching from his window. [^5] Gardiner, in whose time the vestry sold off the church organ, was prominent among Elizabethan puritans and was embroiled in high-level religious–political controversy in the immediate run up to the extension of his church in 1591. [^6]</p>\n\n<p> </p>\n\n<p><em>Seventeenth-century ructions and rebuilding</em></p>\n\n<p>In 1618 William Crashawe, an outspoken and leading London puritan, became Whitechapel’s rector, a posting that brought him upwards of £32 a year. He oversaw the insertion of a gallery in the south aisle which suggests that capacity was already again stretched. It bore a panel to commemorate the failure in 1623 of the Spanish Match. Crashawe died in 1626, preceded by 1,100 of his parishioners in the plague year of 1625. His successor in what his will called the ‘too greate Parishe’ of Whitechapel was John Johnson, another puritan, but one who married the daughter (Judith Meggs) of a wealthy parishioner in 1627 and trimmed thereafter to align with the Laudian tide. [^7] Johnson moved the communion table to the east end of the church, and undertook repairs in 1633–4 with £300 raised from parishioners and more from the Haberdashers’ Company, which in making the grant took into account the relative poverty of the parish. These works left the church ‘within and without, and in every part of it, Richly and very worthily beautify’d’. [^8]</p>\n\n<p>Johnson was among the first London clergy to be deprived of his living in 1641. Laud had strong local opposition. In the early 1640s Thomas Lambe’s General Baptists formed in Whitechapel what was at the time ‘easily the most visible and notorious of all sectarian congregations in London’. [^9] After contested elections for parish overseers and violent confrontations in the church in 1646, Whitechapel’s Independents gained control and gathered under a new rector, Thomas Walley (or Whalley). When the tables turned in 1660 Johnson was reinstated and a schism resulted, most of the congregation departing to a meeting house in Brick Lane. In 1662 Walley was arrested preaching elsewhere in Whitechapel; he soon after emigrated to New England. [^10] Johnson was revealed as corrupt and deprived of his living in 1668, chiefly through the agency of his son-in-law, Ralph Davenant, who became the next rector of Whitechapel. A fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and a descendant of Bishop John Davenant, the moderate Calvinist who had represented the English church at the synod of Dort in 1618, he was also a cousin to Thomas Fuller. [^11]</p>\n\n<p>The largely medieval church was rebuilt in 1672–3. Davenant and the vestry came to an agreement about the project in January 1672 and work was probably complete by the end of 1673 which date was carried on a stone tablet that remained on the east side of the tower through subsequent rebuilds. The principal benefactor was William Meggs, who had the parish’s largest house where Johnson, his brother-in-law, had lodged in the 1650s. Meggs had been a member of Johnson’s vestry from 1660. These links with Johnson notwithstanding, Crashawe’s panel of 1623 was relocated onto the new south gallery and a monument to Crashawe himelf was conspicuously re-erected on the north wall. Puritan inheritance was not obscured. [^12] In its architectural form the new brick-built church represented a rapprochement with moderate Nonconformity. It reused some old footings and lower parts of the tower, but in its regular cross-in-rectangle plan, 90ft by 63ft, with shallow transept projections and angle quoins, it closely followed pre-Restoration Calvinist models at Westminster Broadway and Poplar. High-level round windows to north, south and east, perhaps derived from Inigo Jones’s work of the 1630s at St Paul’s Cathedral. The Serliana to the west also had pre-Restoration precedents in London. There were transept pediments to north and south, segmental pediments above inner-bay entrances to the north and pine-cone finials. The less prominent south side was more humbly finished, with an outer-bay entrance. The west door had rusticated pilasters, cherub-head capitals and a pediment. Architects and builders remain unknown, but there are circumstantial reasons for suspecting involvement on the part of Robert Hooke. [^13] The assuredly if impurely classical auditory interior was ‘very lightsome and spacious’. [^14] The main east-west axis was emphasized by three ribbed cross vaults supported by four Portland stone Corinthian columns, their bases obscured by box pews. There was a step up to the chancel, otherwise only articulated by the inclusion of flanking vestries. A ‘Corinthian’ altarpiece was ‘much enriched’. Shallow north and south galleries were probably original. A large black-and-white marble aedicular mural monument to Meggs was erected after his death in 1678. [^15]</p>\n\n<p><img alt=\"\" src=\"/media/uploads/2017/12/06/st-mary-matfelon-plan-1670s.jpg\"><em>Church of St Mary Matfelon, plan as rebuilt in the 1670s</em></p>\n\n<p><em>Vicissitudes, alterations and repairs, 1700 to 1860</em></p>\n\n<p>Davenant was succeeded in 1681 by Dr William Payne, a latitudinarian, fellow of the Royal Society and leading Whig among London clergy who was keen to embrace dissenters. The living was reduced by the loss of Wapping from the parish in 1694, and the liturgical politics of Whitechapel changed dramatically in 1697 with the appointment of the Rev. Richard Welton, a high-church Tory and Jacobite. Welton attacked Nonconformity and spurned the area’s recent Huguenot immigrants: ‘This set of rabble are the very offal of the earth, who cannot be content to be safe here from that justice and beggary from which they fled, and to be fattened on what belongs to the poor of our own land to grow rich at our expense, but must needs rob us of our religion too.’ [^16] He made beautifying alterations, moving the font and altering pews, oversaw the casting of six new bells by Phelps’s local foundry in 1709, and attracted high-profile controversy in 1713 when he placed a painting of the Last Supper by John Fellowes in the church as an altarpiece. Judas was prominently represented as a likeness of Bishop White Kennett, an antagonist of Welton’s. Through the Bishop of London, Kennett saw to the altarpiece’s removal in 1714. The same phase of works included an organ by Christopher Schreider, perhaps also the west gallery in which it stood. The organ case was later described as ‘carved and gilt, with carved oak trusses and gilt cherubim, surmounted by four richly-carved and gilt figures’ [^17] The gallery front sported a finely carved wood panel depicting King David playing the harp flanked by musical instruments. This survives close by in the church of St Botolph Aldgate. Refusing to swear loyalty to the Hanoverian succession, Welton was deprived of his position in 1715. His painting was thereafter replaced with figures of Moses and Aaron. A square window above was given a painted glory. [^18]</p>\n\n<p>The advowson had been purchased from Stepney by Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1711 when the Commissioners for Building Fifty New Churches decided that Whitechapel needed two more churches. [^19] These did not materialize, but under a succession of latitudinarian rectors Whitechapel’s church appears to have steered clear of further controversy making it a quieter but duller place. It was ‘repaired and Beautified’ in 1735 and again repaired, in what was a wealthy parish, with funds raised through an Act of Parliament in 1762–3 when the tower, possibly unstable, was to have been cased in Portland stone – it was probably rendered instead. The clock stage gained aedicules and a large cupola took the place of the small bell turret. Similarities with the exactly contemporary St George’s German Lutheran Church on Alie Street suggest that the carpenter–architect Joel Johnson may have been in charge of this project. [^20]</p>\n\n<p>The pulpit was to be removed in 1771, but perhaps nothing was done – a carved oak pulpit on fluted columns was in situ a century later. [^21] There were repairs worth £2,000 in 1805, with seats in the galleries divided into pews. Then in 1806 the pulpit was moved and there were more repairs for £4,133 11 2½, with James Carr as surveyor. These works probably included a cornice on the tower. Structural repairs involving iron tie rods and costing £1,113 13 3½ followed in 1825–6, with John Shaw (the elder) as surveyor. Even so, the tower became dangerous. James Savage acted as surveyor for yet further repairs in 1829–30, for £1,686 8 4. In 1839 Edward Blore reported on the state of the church and recommended rebuilding. Discussion was adjourned for a year, but not resumed, the notion presumably deemed too costly. [^22] The tower was again repaired in 1865, and given a new cast-iron bell frame made by Mears &amp; Co. At some point in all this the east window was replaced with an 18ft-tall arch-headed stained-glass Adoration of the Shepherds. [^23]</p>\n\n<p>From 1837 to 1860 the Rev. William Weldon Champneys was Whitechapel’s rector. An evangelical, he started with a congregation of about 100, in a population of 36,000, and by 1851 had built attendances up to more than 4,000 across three services on a Sunday. He brought numerous reforms to Whitechapel, from a Sunday School and Mothers’ Meeting, to a Coal Club and Shoe Black Brigade, attempted to convert Whitechapel’s many Jews, and battled cholera and house farmers. Champneys also divided the parish, founding three new churches (see pp.xx). [^24]</p>\n\n<p><em>Victorian rebuildings</em></p>\n\n<p>An inspection in advance of an intended redecoration led to another condemnation of the seventeenth-century church as structurally unsafe in 1873. The parish reluctantly geared up to spend £4,000 on essential repairs. Then, in June 1874, Octavius Edward Coope came to the rescue. Coope was a wealthy brewer, a founder of Ind Coope &amp; Co. in Romford in 1845, which firm expanded to Burton-on-Trent in 1856. He had been an MP in 1847–8, but was unseated on grounds of bribery. After a long interval he was again elected to Parliament as a Conservative MP for Middlesex in 1874. With that newly acquired status, Coope stepped forward claiming to be a Whitechapel parishioner – Ind Coope &amp; Co. had offices and a depot on the west side of Osborn Street, Coope himself lived in Essex and, when in London, on Upper Brook Street in Mayfair. He offered to pay up to £12,500 towards a new church, presenting plans by his architect nephew, Ernest Claude Lee, who had been a pupil of William Burges’s, for a red-brick and stone-dressed High Gothic Revival building to seat 1,400. The offer was initially accepted with great relief and joy, but Coope had soon to defend the proposed use of red brick, averring, wrongly, that ‘our great church architect Street invariably uses it’. [^25] It was in fact to James Brooks’s recent red-brick churches in Haggerston, St Columba and St Chad, that a Vestry committee led by the Rev. James Cohen, a converted Jew who had been Whitechapel’s rector since 1860, and subsequently spearheaded by Augustus William Gadesden, a sugar refiner, went for comparative inspection. They were not impressed, convinced in their dislike of red brick, and anyway keen to have a larger church. Overall costs were estimated to be about £6,000 more than Coope was offering. Cohen’s committee concluded in September, with diminished alacrity, that ‘it is expedient that the offer of Mr Coope be accepted.’ [^26] Rebuilding began in 1875 when Cohen was succeeded by the Rev. John Fenwick Kitto. The builder was John T. Chappell, of Little George Street, Westminster, work was completed in October 1876 and there was a consecration in February 1877. The upper stage of the tower and spire followed in 1878, built by Edward Conder of Kingsland Basin. The estimated total final cost had risen to about £30,000 of which it was later said around £10,000 came from public subscription, the rest from Coope. [^27]</p>\n\n<p>The large brick church comprised a nave (109ft long and 78ft high) and aisles, a round-apsed chancel, a baptistery under a west gallery and a three-stage north-west tower with an octagonal spire and corner turrets rising 175ft in all, sited so as to be prominent on the main road. It extended further west and south than had its predecessor and was set less squarely to the road, to minimise disturbance of the graveyard and avoid building on southerly ground that was only leasehold. While adhering to red brick, Lee had amended his plans. The church had only 1,250 sittings and omitted a full-height north transept in favour of a gabled organ bay at the east end of the north aisle. An unusual feature, reflecting the local mission and a memorial to Champneys, was an external pulpit, placed on a staircase turret at the north-west corner of the nave. There was a large ‘church room’ to the south-east in which relics from the old church were displayed. The interior had ornamentally carved Bath stone dressings to naked brick surfaces (perhaps intended for decoration), Minton floor tiles and a ceiled wagon-vault, a form chosen for auditory reasons, ill-advisedly as the building had very poor acoustics. The old clock and bells were reset. Lee deployed thirteenth-century style details and himself designed fittings including the pulpit, lectern, font and a mosaic apse floor, executed by Burke &amp; Co. of Regent Street. Horatio Walter Lonsdale, Lee’s brother-in-law, supplied stained-glass windows. Stone carving was by Thomas Earp of Lambeth. [^28]</p>\n\n<p>This church was short-lived, suddenly gutted by fire on a summer’s Thursday afternoon, on 27 August 1880. Flames in the organ chamber swept up the organ pipes into the timber roof. The tower survived. Kitto and Gadesden led an approach to Coope, still an MP, who undertook to use his influence to secure the insurance cover of £16,800 and to stump up further rebuilding costs. The acoustical shortcomings of the destroyed interior led him to make replacement conditional on a redesign by Lee. [^29] The church was rebuilt in 1881–2 on the same plan, but with a polygonal apse and an open pseudo-hammerbeam roof beneath a lower ridge which did bring acoustical success. The nave west wall was given three windows in place of two, and there were other detailed variations that favoured a style more characteristic of the fourteenth century. The interior was yet more richly sculpted than its predecessor, and this time lavishly decorated with stencilling that shows the influence of Burges. Conder was the builder and Lonsdale supervised painting and glass. [^30]</p>\n\n<p><img alt=\"\" src=\"/media/uploads/2017/12/06/st-mary-whitechapel-nd-ebay.jpg\"><em>The Church of St Mary Matfelon, around 1920</em></p>\n\n<p>An alabaster reredos intended since 1878 was at last made in 1886–7 as a memorial to Coope. Carved by Earp, it represented the Last Supper and the Tree of Jesse, and stood in front of stencilled decoration of the early 1880s by Lonsdale that included large angels for the Twelve Gates of the Heavenly Jerusalem. [^31]</p>\n\n<p>Rebuilds notwithstanding, church attendance was lower than it had been under Champneys. It was estimated in the early 1880s to be around 1,500 on Sundays, albeit in a reduced parish with an estimated population of 14,000, the main impediment being what the Rev. Arthur James Robinson called ‘the old story of indifference’. [^32] Yet this was among the best attended of East London churches, with fully choral services and psalms chanted morning and evening. By 1884 Robinson’s team included two Missioners to Jews, the Rev. J. H. Bruhl and the Rev. A. Bernstein. The open-air pulpit was in regular use, and by the 1890s and well into the twentieth century special services were conducted for Jews in Hebrew and German, with sermons preached in Yiddish to congregations of up to 500. A last notable rector was the Rev. John A. Mayo, who gave the first radio sermon in 1922. [^33] </p>\n\n<p><img alt=\"\" src=\"/media/uploads/2017/12/06/st-mary-m-1941-small_1VZhH0k.jpg\"><em>The Church of St Mary Matfelon in May 1941</em></p>\n\n<p>St Mary’s Church was gutted once again, this time by fire bombs on 29 December 1940. The ruined shell of the building was cleared in 1952. [^34]</p>\n\n<p>[^1]: <em>Victoria County History Middlesex</em>: vol. 11, <em>Stepney, Bethnal Green</em>, 1998, pp.1–7, 13–19, 70–81: Jane Cox, <em>Old East Enders: A History of the Tower Hamlets</em>, 2013, p.52</p>\n\n<p>[^2]: ed. A. H. Thomas, <em>Calendar of the Plea and Memoranda Rolls of the City of London: vol. 1, 1323–1364</em>, 1926, pp. 208–9: G. Reginald Balleine, <em>The Story of St Mary Matfelon</em>, 1898, p.10: Kevin McDonnell, <em>Medieval London Suburbs</em>, 1978, pp.141–2: Historic England, GLHER, MLO3933</p>\n\n<p>[^3]: ed. C. J. Kitching, <em>London and Middlesex Chantry Certificate 1548</em>, 1980, pp.xxx–xxxi, 6</p>\n\n<p>[^4]: George H. Birch, ‘Stray notes on the Church and Parish of S. Mary Matfelon, Whitechapel’, <em>Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society</em>, old series, vol. 5, 1881, pp.514–18: LMA, Collage 35135: Richard Newcourt, <em>Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinensis</em>, vol. 1, 1708, p.698: Balleine, p.14</p>\n\n<p>[^5]: Balleine, pp.12–13: <em>Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</em> for Hunne</p>\n\n<p>[^6]: George Hennessy, <em>Novum repertorium ecclesiasticum parochiale Londinense</em>, 1908, p.457: Patrick Collinson, <em>Richard Bancroft and Elizabethan Anti-Puritanism</em>, 2013, pp.110-11</p>\n\n<p>[^7]: <em>ODNB</em> for Crashawe: Balleine, p.15: Derek Morris, <em>Whitechapel 1600–1800</em>, 2011, p.152: TNA, PROB11/356</p>\n\n<p>[^8]: Newcourt, <em>Repertorium</em>, p.699: John Strype, <em>A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster</em>, vol. 2/4, 1720, p.45: Keith Lindley, ‘Whitechapel Independents and the English Revolution’ <em>Historical Journal</em>, vol. 41/1, 1998, pp.283–91 at p.286</p>\n\n<p>[^9]: Murray Tolmie, <em>The triumph of the saints: the separate churches of London, 1616–49</em>, 1977, p.76</p>\n\n<p>[^10]: London Metropolitan Archives, DL/C/344, ff.170v–72r: Lindley, <em>loc. cit.</em>: A. G. Matthews, <em>Walker Revised</em>, 1948, p. 52: A. G. Matthews, <em>Calamy Revised</em>, 1934, p.508: Balleine, pp.15–18</p>\n\n<p>[^11]: Newcourt, <em>Repertorium</em>, p.700: <em>ODNB</em> for John Davenant and Fuller</p>\n\n<p>[^12]: LMA, P93/MRY1/090; DL/C/345, ff. 88v, 112v: Edward Hatton, <em>A New View of London</em>, vol. 2, 1708, p.406: Strype, p.45: Matthews, <em>Walker Revised</em>, p. 52: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, <em>London</em>, vol. 5: <em>East London</em>, 1930, pp.71–2</p>\n\n<p>[^13]: Peter Guillery, ‘Suburban Models, or Calvinism and Continuity in London’s Seventeenth-Century Church Architecture’, <em>Architectural History</em>, vol. 48, 2005, pp.87–92: Birch, <em>op. cit</em>.</p>\n\n<p>[^14]: Newcourt, <em>Repertorium</em>, p.699</p>\n\n<p>[^15]: Hatton, p. 406: Strype, p. 45: RCHM, <em>op. cit.</em>, p.71: LMA, Collage 22631; P93/MRY1/092, pp.7,9</p>\n\n<p>[^16]: As quoted by Anne J. Kershen, <em>Strangers, Aliens and Asians: Huguenots, Jews and Bangladeshis in Spitalfields, 1666–2000</em>, 2004, p.170. When this was quoted by Balleine in 1898 he added ‘how blind this prejudice was … May we learn the obvious lesson for ourselves!’, p.22</p>\n\n<p>[^17]: <em>The Builder</em>, 30. Jan. 1875, p.93</p>\n\n<p>[^18]: LMA, P93/MRY1/90: Tower Hamlets Local History Library &amp; Archives, LC6854, P/MIS/330 and P10051: <em>ODNB</em> for Payne, Welton and Fellowes: Balleine, pp.19–25: David Hughson, <em>London being an accurate history etc</em>, vol. 4, 1807, p.431</p>\n\n<p>[^19]: Lambeth Palace Library, MS2690, p.10</p>\n\n<p>[^20]: LMA, P93/MRY1/90: <em>St James’s Chronicle</em>, 19–22 Jan 1762: THLHLA, P100058: Balleine, pp.28–9: Morris, <em>op. cit.</em>, p.165</p>\n\n<p>[^21]: LMA, P93/MRY1/90: <em>B</em>, 30 Jan. 1875, p. 93</p>\n\n<p>[^22]: LMA, P93/MRY1/90</p>\n\n<p>[^23]: <em>The Builder</em>, 18 March 1865, p.200; 30 Jan. 1875, p.93</p>\n\n<p>[^24]: <em>ODNB</em>: Balleine, pp.33–5</p>\n\n<p>[^25]: THLHLA, L/SMW/A/1/1: LMA, P93/MRY1/092: Post Office Directories: Mark Girouard, <em>The Victorian Country House</em>, 1979, p.397</p>\n\n<p>[^26]: THLHLA, L/SMW/A/1/1: LMA, P93/MRY1/092</p>\n\n<p>[^27]: District Surveyors Returns: <em>The Builder</em>, 30 Jan. 1875, p.108; 24 July 1875, p.659; 23 Oct. 1875, p.962; 27 Jan. 1877, pp.89–90: <em>Illustrated London News</em>, 24 July 1875, p.93: <em>The Times</em>, 3 Feb. 1877; 1 Sept. 1880</p>\n\n<p>[^28]: LMA, P93/MRY1/092; P93/MRY1/173–4: THLHLA, LCF00550: <em>Building News</em>, 8 Sept. 1876: <em>The Builder</em>, 27 Jan. 1877, pp.89–90; 16 March 1878, pp.266–9: <em>The Architect</em>, 4 Aug. 1877; 15 Dec. 1877, p. 328: RIBA Drawings Collection, PB179/23: Gordon Barnes, <em>Stepney Churches</em>, 1967, pp.48–53</p>\n\n<p>[^29]: THLHLA, L/SMW/A/1/1: <em>The Times</em>, 1 Sept. 1880, p.3; 12 Oct. 1880, p.7; 14 Oct. 1880, p.4: <em>The Standard</em>, 30 Aug. 1880: <em>ILN</em>, 4 Sept. 1880, p.248: <em>Pictorial World</em>, 4 Sept. 1880, p.432: Metropolitan Board of Works Minutes, 15 Oct. 1880, p.467: <em>The Builder</em>, 20 Nov. 1880, p.630</p>\n\n<p>[^30]: THLHLA, LCF0051: <em>Building News</em>, 12 May 1882: THLHLA, A. J. Robinson, <em>A short history of the parish church of Whitechapel</em>, 1886: RIBA Drawings Collection, SD65/18</p>\n\n<p>[^31]: Bishopsgate Institute, E. C. Lee, <em>A short history of the parish church of Whitechapel</em>, 1887, pp.15–16</p>\n\n<p>[^32]: Lambeth Palace Library, FP Jackson 2, f.513</p>\n\n<p>[^33]: LPL, Benson 25, ff.96–8: Henry Walker, <em>Sketches of Christian work and workers</em>, 1896: THLHLA, Parish of St Mary Whitechapel, Annual Report and Accounts, 1913, pp.32–7</p>\n\n<p>[^34]: LMA, GLC/AR/HB/02/375</p>\n",
        "created": "2016-06-27",
        "last_edited": "2018-08-13"
    }
]